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Psychological Ghosts and Doppelgängers to 1945


—a bibliography by Aaron Leis—



introduction
Psychological Ghosts
The Doppelgänger
Criticism
Select Interdisciplinary Sources
Sources Consulted






 

The conception of this project occurred one day while I was looking back over the many essays I've written over the years. Though the subjects ranged, I noticed one that I kept coming back to: the psychological manifestation of ghosts and doppelgängers in gothic literature. My introduction to this phenomenon (and probably the best-known instance of it in literature) was Henry James's The Turn of the Screw, in which a governess in charge of two children begins to see the ghosts of their former guardians. The tale, written during the emergence of Freud's theories of repressed sexuality, gives numerous clues that the governess (a woman who had been sheltered from contact with men for much of her life) is manifesting her fears of sexuality as the ghosts she thinks are returning to tempt the children.

The revelation of the underlying psychology of James' story led to similar discoveries in Poe's stories and Gilman's The Yellow Wallpaper, continuing to more contemporary examples such as Shirley Jackson's The Haunting of Hill House and novel and film Fight Club, almost a case study of Julian Jaynes' Bicameral Mind Theory in which the main character's id projects as a doppelgänger trying to revert the world back to the hunter-gatherer society where, according to Jaynes, the bicameral mind he is a product of would have flourished.

Gothic literature owes as a major origin the attempted resolution of Romanticism with the Realism of the Victorian period. The emerging focus on psychology allowed writers interested in capturing Realism to still write about the supernatural, but to write about it as a function of the mind. Freud probably summed up the resulting terror of this type of writing when he counted himself as the third great shock to the human self-image after Galileo and Darwin. He said that they proved, respectively, that we are not the center of the universe nor are we greater than the animals, but that he proved we are not even in control of our own unconscious.

It is with this assessment of psychological horror in mind that the cutoff for fiction in this bibliography is set at 1945. The phenomena in question do exist up through contemporary writing, but the dropping of the bomb in 1945 seems to have shifted our fears again—reminding us that there still are things to be afraid of outside of our minds. The works in Literary Criticism, however, range from overall discussions of ghosts and doubles in literature, to specific interpretations of works, to comparative analyses. I have included essays on works past the 1945 cutoff date specifically for these comparative purposes. Finally, the Selected Interdisciplinary section attempts to provide essays regarding ghosts, doppelgängers, and related subjects (such as schizophrenia, hallucinations, and dualism) in the fields of Psychology, Parapsychology, and Philosophy.

I must acknowledge Dr. Bryan Dietrich, who first guided me through the fissures and synapses of Gothic Literature while I was an undergraduate at Newman University, Rob Hein, who since October of 1999 has acted as my own personal doppelgänger and arch-nemesis, Willis Library at the University of North Texas for letting me check out books that weren't supposed to be checked out, The Riverside Perk Coffee Shop in Wichita, Kansas for sending me the copious amounts of free coffee that helped keep me from manifesting ghosts myself, and finally to Dr. Peter Shillingsburg who made this listing possible by teaching me that books of lists of books of lists truly exist and are quite helpful. Thanks to all.

—University of North Texas, Winter 2000

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Psychological Ghosts

Alden, William L. A Lost Soul: Being the Confession and Defense of Charles Lindsay. London: Chatto & Windus, 1892.

Alexander, Sigmund B. "A Dual Life." Ten of Us: Original Stories and Sketches. Boston: Laughton, Macdonald, 1887.

Anon. "The German Student." Library of the Newest English Novels, Tales, and Poems. Leipzig: Julius Wunder, 1837.

Anon. "The People of Darkness." Quakes: An Anthology of Uneasy Tales. London: Philip Allan, 1933.

Anstey, F. (pseud. of Guthrie, Thomas Anstey). The Statement of Stella Maberly, Written by Herself. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1896.

Armstrong, Martin. "Title of Essay or Chapter." The Bazaar and Other Stories. London: Jonathan Cape, 1924.

Armstrong, Martin. "The Pipe-Smoker." General Buntop's Miracle and Other Stories. London: Gollancz, 1934.

Atherton, Gertrude. "The Dead and the Countess." The Bell in the Fog and Other Stories. New York and London: Harper, 1905.

Austin, Frederick Britten. "The White Dog." On the Borderland. London: Hurst and Blackett, 1922.

Bangs, John Kendrick. Roger Camerden: A Strange Story. New York: George G. Coombes, 1887.

Bates, Arlo. "Miss Gaylor and Jenny." The Intoxicated Ghost and Other Stories. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1908.

Blackwood, Algernon. "A Case of Eavesdropping." The Empty House and Other Ghost Stories. London: Eveleigh Nash, 1906.

Blackwood, Algernon, with Wilfred Wilson. "Chinese Magic." The Wolves of God and Other Fey Tales. London: Cassell, 1921.

Blakeston, Oswell. "The House Opposite." Crimes, Creeps, and Thrills. London: E. H. Samuel, 1936.

Bloch, Robert. "One Way to Mars." The Opener of the Way. Sauk City, Wisc.: Arkham House, 1945.

Burke, Thomas. The Bloomsbury Wonder. London: Mandrake Press, 1929.

Capes, Bernard. "The Petroleuse." The Faubulists. London: Mills and Boon, 1929.

Claxton, A. H. "They Come for Their Own." Thrills: A Collection of Uneasy Tales. London: Philip Allan, 1935.

Dunsany, Lord. "The Coronation of Mr. Thomas Shap." A Book of Wonder: A Chronicle of Little Adventures ad the End of the World. London: Heinemann, 1912.

Gilbert, William (published anon.). Shirley Hall Asylums; or, The Memoirs of a Monomaniac. London: Freeman, 1863.

Graves, Robert. The Shout. London: E. Mathews and Marrot, 1929.

Harvey, William Fryer. "The Tool." The Beast with Five Fingers and Other Tales. London: Dent, 1928.

Heard, Henry Fitzgerald. "The Cat, 'I AM'." The Great Fog and Other Weird Tales. New York: Vanguard Press, 1944.

Houghton, Claude. "The Madness of Christopher Curlew." Three Fantastic Tales. London: Frederick C. Joiner, 1934.

Howells, William Dean. Questionable Shapes. New York: Harper, 1903.

Hunt, Barbara. "The Witness." Tales of the Uneasy. London: Heinemann, 1911.

Irving, Washington. "The Adventure of the German Student." Tales of a Traveler by Geoffrey Crayon, Gentleman. London: John Murray, 1824.

James, Henry. The Ghostly Tales of Henry James. : Rutgers University Press, 1948.

James, M[ontague] R[hodes]. Ghost Stories of Antiquary. : Edward Arnold, 1904.

Kelvington, Neeville. "Meshes of Doom." Horrors: A Collection of Uneasy Tales. London: Philip Allan, 1933.

Kipling, Rudyard. The Phantom 'Rickshaw and Other Tales. Allahalood: Wheeler, 1888.

Le Fanu, J[oseph] S[heridan]. Best Ghost Stories of J. S. Le Fanu. Ed. E.F. Bleiler. New York: Dover, 1964.

London, Jack. "Eternity of Forms." Turtles of Tasman. New York: Macmillan, 1916.

Lovecraft, H. P. "The Rats in the Walls." The Outsider and Others. Sauk City, Wisc.: Arkham House, 1939.

Metcalfe, John. "Face of Bassett." Judas and Other Stories. London: Constable, 1931.

Middleton, Richard, and G. Dundas. "Murray's Child." Crimes, Creeps, and Thrills. London: E. H. Samuel, 1936.

Onions, Oliver. "'IO'/The Lost Thyrsus." Widdershins. London: Martin Secker, 1911.

Onions, Oliver. "Benlian." Widdershins. London: Martin Secker, 1911.

Pain, Barry. "The Diary of God." Stories in the Dark. London: Grant Richards, 1926.

Pain, Barry. "The Celestial Grocery." In a Canadian Canoe. London: H. Henry and Company, 1891.

Phillpotts, Eden. "The Iron Pineapple." Peacock House and Other Mysteries. London: Hutchinson, 1926.

Shearing, Joseph (pseud. of Gabrielle Long). The Fetch. (U.S. Title: The Spectral Bride). London: Hutchinson, 1942.

Smith, Lady Eleanor. "Mrs. Raeburn's Waxwork." Satan's Circus and Other Stories. London: Golancz, 1932.

Spofford, Harriet Elizabeth (published anon.). Sir Rohan's Ghost. Boston: J. E. Tilton, 1860.

Stapledon, Olaf. The Flames. London: Secker and Warburg, 1947.

Sterling, John. "The Onyx Ring." Essays and Tales. London: J. W. Parker, 1848.

Tannett, N. "Unburied Bane." Horrors: A Collection of Uneasy Tales. London: Philip Allan, 1933.

Wakefield, H. Russell. "Monstrous Regiment." Strayers from Sheol. Sauk City, Wisc.: Arkham House, 1961.

Wakefield, H. Russell. "Immortal Bird." Strayers from Sheol. Sauk City, Wisc.: Arkham House, 1961.

Wakefield, H. Russell. "The Third Coach." They Return at Evening. London: Philip Allan, 1928.

Walpole, Sir Hugh Seymour. "Major Wilbraham." The Silver Thorn. London: Macmillan, 1928.

Wells, H. G. The Croquet Player. London: Chatto and Windus, 1936.

Wells, H. G. "The Moth." The Stolen Bacillus and Other Incidents. London: Methuen, 1895.

Wharton, Edith. Ghosts. : Appleton-Century, 1937.

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The Doppelgänger

Anisworth, William Harrison. The Lancashire Witches. London: Henry Colburn, 1849.

Anonymous. "The Doppelgänger." Ed. Neale, Arthur. Great Weird Stories. New York: Daffield, 1929.

Anonymous. "The Fated Hour." Tales of the Dead: Principally Translated from the French. London: White, Cochrane, and Company, 1813.

Bangs, John Kendrick. "Thurlow's Christmas Story." Ghosts I Have Met and Some Others. New York: Harper, 1898.

Blackwood, Algernon [Henry]. Full Circles. London: Elkin Mathews and Marrot, 1929.

Blackwood, Algernon [Henry]. "May Day Eve." The Listener and Other Stories. London: Eveleigh Nash, 1907.

Bullett, Gerald [William]. Mr. Godley Beside Himself. London: John Cane, 1924.

Chase, James Hadley (pseud. of Raymond, Rene). Miss Shumway Waves a Wand. London: Jarrolds, 1944.

Dawson, Emma [Frances]. "The Dramatic in my Destiny." An Itinerant House and Other Stories. San Francisco: William Doxey, 1896.

Dickens, Charles. The Haunted Man and the Ghost's Bargain. London: Bradford and Evans, 1848.

Gilchrist, [Robert] Murray. "Midsummer Madness." The Stone Dragon and Other Tragic Romances. London: Methuen, 1894.

Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. The Yellow Wallpaper. : Small Maynard, 1901.

Grosse, Karl. Horrid Mysteries: A Story. London: William Lane, 1796.

Hichens, Robert S[mythe]. Flames: A London Phantasy. London: Heinemann, 1897.

Hoffman, E[rnst] T[heodore] W[ilhelm]. "Ignaz Denner." Hoffman's Fairy Tales. Boston: Burnham Brothers, 1857.

Hoffman, E[rnst] T[heodore] W[ilhelm]. The Devil's Elixer. Edinburgh: Blackwood, 1824.

Hogg, James. The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner Written by Himself. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1824.

Irving, Washington. "Don Juan: A Spectral Research." Chronicles of Wolfert's Roost and Other Papers. Edinburgh: Constable, 1855.

Isaacs, Mrs. Ariel; or, The Invisible Moniter. London: William Lane, 1801.

Jackson, Charles Loring. "A Remarkable Case." The Gold Point and Other Strange Stories. Boston: The Stratford Company, 1926.

Jackson, Charles Loring. "The Cube." The Gold Point and Other Strange Stories. Boston: The Stratford Company, 1926.

James, Henry. "The Jolly Corner." The Ghostly Tales of Henry James. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1948.

Knowles, Vernon. "The Ship in the Off Street." Two and Two Make Five. London: Newnes, 1935.

MacNish, Robert. "Death and the Fisherman." The Modern Pythagorean: A Series of Tales, Essays, and Sketches. Edinburgh: William Blackwood and Sons, 1838.

McCarthy, Desmond. "Pargiton and Harby." Ed. Asquith, Lady Cynthia. The Ghost Book. London: Hutchinson, 1926.

Metcalfe, John. "The Double Admiral." The Smoking Leg. London: Jarrolds, 1925.

Palmer, Cecil. "The Hill." Ed. Roberts, R[ichard] Ellis. The Other End. London: Cecil Palmer, 1923.

Poe, Edgar Allan. "William Wilson." Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque. Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1840.

Shelly, Mary Wollstonecraft. Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus. London: Lackington, Hughes, Harding, Mavor, and Janes, 1818.

Stevenson, Robert Louis. The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Munro: New York, 1886.

Stoker, Bram. "Crooken Sands." Dracula's Guest and Other Weird Stories. London: Routeledge, 1914.

Thomson, Christine Campbell. "Sacred Mirror." Nightmare by Daylight. London: Selwyn and Blount, 1936.

Utterson, Sarah. "The Fated Hour." Tales of the Dead. London: White, Cochrane, 1813.

Wharton, Edith. "The Triumph of Night." Zinga and Other Stories. New York: Scribner, 1916.

Wilde, Oscar. The Picture of Dorian Gray. London: Ward, Lock, 1891.

Williams, Charles [Walter Sansby]. Descent into Hell. London: Faber and Faber, 1937.

Wintle, W[illiam] James. "The Ghost at the Blue Dragon." Ghost Gleams: Tales of the Uncanny. London: Heath, Cranton, 1921.

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Criticism

Anonymous. "A Chapter on Goblins." Blackwood's 14 (December 1823): 639-646.

Anspaugh, Kelly. "Getting Even with Uncle Ez: Wyndham Lewis's Doppelgänger." Journal of Modern Literature. 19.2 (Fall 1995): 235-43.

Beckson, Karl. "Narcissistic Reflections in a Wilde Mirror." Modern Drama. 37 (Spring 1994): 148-55.

Block, Edwin F., Jr. Rituals of Dis-Intigration: Romance and Madness in the Victorian Psychomythic Tale. New York: Garland, 1993.

Botting, Fred. "The Gothic Production of the Unconscious." Ed. Glennis, Byron and David Punter. Spectral Readings: Towards a Gothic Geography. New York: St. Martins', Macmillan, 1999. 11-36

Brantlinger, Patrick and Richard Boyle. "The Education of Edward Hyde: Stevenson's 'Gothic Gnome' and the Mass Readership of Late-Victorian England." Ed. Veeder, William and Gordon Hirsch. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde after One Hundred Years. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988. 265-82

Brennan, Matthew C. The Gothic Psyche: Disintigration and Growth in Nineteenth-Century English Literature. Columbia, SC: Camden House, 1997.

Briggs, Julia. Night Visitors: The Rise and Fall of the English Ghost Story. London: Faber, 1977.

Carlyle, J. A. "Letters on Demonology and Witchcraft." Fraser's 2 (December 1830): 507-519.

Carter, Margaret L[ouise]. "'Fiend, Spectre, or Delusion?' Narrative Doubt and the Supernatural in Gothic Fiction." Diss. DA 47:3 (September 1986): 908A.

Carter, Margaret L[ouise]. Specter or Delusion? The Supernatural in Gothic Fiction. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1987.

Chianese, Robert L. "James Hogg's Confessions of a Justified Sinner: An Anatomy of Terror." Mystery and Detection Annual. : 97-112.

Clery, E. J. "Laying the Ground for Gothic: The Passage of the Supernatural from Truth to Spectacle." Ed. Tinkler, Villani Valeria, et al. Exhibited by Candlelight: Sources and Developments in the Gothic Tradition. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1995. 65-74

Clery, E. J. :The Supernatural Explained." The Rise of Supernatural Fiction, 1762-1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Cohen, Emily Jane. "Museums of the Mind: The Gothic and the Art of Memory." ELH. 62.4 (Winter 1995): 883-905.

Crook, Eugene J., ed. Fearful Symmetry: Doubles and Doubling in Literature and Film. Tallahassee: Florida State University Press, 1981.

Davies, Helen D. F. "Shapes Half-Hid: Psychological Realisation in the English and American Gothic Novel." Diss. DA 51:1 (July 1990): 163A.

Dence, Alexandra Sharlotte. "The Nineteenth-Century Novel's Divided Personality: Gothic Worlds in Dickens, Hardy, and James." Diss. University of Alberta. DA 53:12 (June 1993): 4330A.

Dickens, Charles (published anon.). "Deepening a Mystery." Times Literary Supplement [London]. 23 May 1942: 259

Doody, Margaret Anne. "Deserts, Ruins, and Troubled Waters: Female Dreams in Fiction and the Development of the Gothic Novel." Genre. 10 (Winter 1977): 529-571.

Fleenor, Julian E. "The Gothic Prism: Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Gothic Stories and Her Autobiography." Ed. Fleenor, Julian E. The Female Gothic. Montreal: Eden, 1983. 227-241

Fletcher, Richard P. "The Convention of the Double Self in Nineteenth Century English Fiction." Diss. University of Delaware, 1976.

Fowler, Doreen. Faulkner: The Return of the Repressed. Charlottesville, VA: Virginia University Press, 1997.

Frosch, Mary Alfred. "Narcissus: The Negative Double." Diss. City University of New York, 1976.

Galef, David. "Keeping One's Distance: Irony and Doubling in Wuthering Heights." Studies in the Novel. 24 (Fall 1992): 242-50.

Geary, Robert F. "From Providence to Terror: The Supernatural in Gothic Fantasy." Ed. Morse, Donald E. The Fantastic in World Literature and the Arts. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1987. 7-19

Gilbert, Claire. Nerval's Double: A Structural Study. University, Miss: Romance Monographs, inc., 1979.

Gillies, Robert P. and John Gibson Lockhart. "The Devil's Elixer." Blackwood's. 16 (July 1824): 55-67.

Gillman, Susan Kay. Dark Twins: Imposture and Identity in Mark Twain's America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.

Glenn, Kathleen M. "Gothic Indecipherability and Doubling in the Fiction of Cristina Fernandez Cubas." Monographic Review Revista Monografica. 8 (1992): 125-41.

Griffin, Susan M. "Seeing Doubles: Reflections of the Self in James's Sense of the Past." Modern Language Quarterly. 45 (March 1984): 48-60.

Guerard, Albert. "Concepts of the Double." Ed. Guerard, Albert. Stories of the Double. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1967. 1-14

Hallam, Clifford. "The Double as Incomplete Self: Towards a Definition of Doppelgänger." Ed. Crook, Eugene J. Fearful Symmetry: Doubles and Doubling in Literature and Film. Tallahassee: Florida State University Press, 1981. 1-23

Harter, Deborah A. "Divided Selves, Ironic Counterparts: Intertextual Doubling in Baudelaire's 'L'Heautontimoroumenos' and Poe's 'The Haunted Palace'." Comparative Literature Studies. 26.1 (1989): 28-38.

Hawthorn, Jeremy. Multiple Personality and the Disintigration of Literary Character: From Oliver Goldsmith to Sylvia Plath. New York: St. Martins', 1983.

Hennelly, Mark M., Jr. "Stevenson's 'Silent Symbols' of the 'Fatal Cross Roads' in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde." Gothic. 1 (1979): 10-16.

Hogle, Jerrold E. "The Gothic Ghost as Counterfeit and It's Haunting of Romanticism: The Case of 'Frost at Midnight'." European Romantic Review. 9.2 (Spring 1998): 283-92.

Hogle, Jerrold. "Frankenstein as Neo-Gothic: From the Ghost of the Counterfeit to the Monster of Abjection." Ed. Tilottama, Rajan and Julia M. Wright. Romanticism, history and the Possibilities of Genre: Reforming Literature, 1789-1837. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1998. 176-210

Iser, Wolfgang. "Staging as an Anthropological Category." New Literary History. 23 (Autumn 1992): 877-88.

Johnson, Greg. "Gilman's Gothic Allegory: Rage and Redemption in The Yellow Wallpaper." Studies in Short Fiction. 26.4 (Fall 1989): 521-30.

Joswick, Thomas. "Who's Master in the House of Poe? A Reading of William Wilson." Criticism. 30 (Spring 1988): 225-51.

Kahane, Claire. "Gilman's Gothic Allegory: Rage and Redemption in The Yellow Wallpaper." Ed. Shirley, Nelson Garner, et al. The M(other) Tongue: Essays in Feminist Psychoanalytic Interpretation. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1985. 334-351

Keppler, C. F. The Literature of the Second Self. Tuscon: University of Arizona Press, 1972.

Klingenberg, Patricia N. "The Mad Double in the Stories of Silvina Ocampo." Latin American Literary Review. 16 (July/December 1988): 29-40.

Lang, Thomas B. "The Gothic Strain in the Victorian Novel: Four Studies." Diss. University of Iowa, 1974.

Lawler, Donald. "Reframing Jekyll and Hyde: Robert Louis Stevenson and the Strange Case of Gothic Fiction." Ed. William, Veeder and Gordon Hirsch. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde After One Hundred Years. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988. 247-61

Lee, L.L. "The Devil's Figure: James Hogg's Justified Sinner." Studies in Scottish Literature. 3 (April 1966): 230-239.

Lyne, William. "The Signifying Modernist: Ralph Ellison and the Limits of the Double Consciousness." PMLA. 107 (March 1992): 319-30.

Marovitz, Sanford. "Poe's Reception of C.W. Webber's Gothic Western." Poe Studies. 4 (June 1971): 11-13.

McFatter, Susan Prothro. "Parody and Dark Projections." Western American Literature. 26.2 (August 1991): 119-35.

Mellard, James M. "Flannery O'Connor's Others: Freud, Lacan, and the Unconscious." American Literature. 61 (December 1989): 625-43.

Merivale, Patricia. "The Esthetics of Perversion: Gothic Artifice in Henry James and Witold Gombrowicz." PMLA. 93 (1978): 992-1002.

Miller, Karl. Doubles: Studies in Literary History. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Miyoshi, Masao. The Divided Self: Perspectives on the Literature of the Victorians. New York: New York University Press, 1969.

Moldenhauer, Joseph J. "Poe's Aesthetics, Psychology, and Moral Vision." PMLA. 83.2 (May 1968): 284-97.

Morgenstern, Naomi Elizabeth. "Gothic Rehearsals: Traumatic Origins and Spectral Returns in Twentieth-Century American Fiction." Diss. Cornell University, 1996. DA 57:6 (1996): 2480A.

Moynahan, Julian. "The Politics of Anglo-Irish Gothic: Maturin, Le Fanu, and 'The Return of the Repressed.'." Ed. Kosok, Heinz. Studies in Anglo-Irish Literature. Bonn: Bouvier, 1982. 43-53

Muir, Stuart. "The Grotesque in First-Person Narration: Psychoanalysis and Narratology." Diss. DA 47:6 (December 1986): 2152A.

Oates, Joyce Carol. "Jekyll/Hyde." The Hudson Review. 40 (Winter 1988): 603-8.

Ozolins, Aija. "Dreams and Doctrines: Dual Strands in Frankenstein." Science Fiction Studies. 2 (July 1975): 103-112.

Park, Martha M. "Archibald Malmaison: Julain Hawthorne's Contribution to Gothic Fiction." Extrapolation. 15 (May 1974): 103-116.

Peavoy, John Roger. "Artificial Terrors and Real Horrors: The Supernatural in Gothic Fiction." Diss. DA 42:2 (August 1981): 714A.

Pizer, John David. Ego—Alter Ego: Double and/as Other in the Age of German Poetic Realism. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Poe, Edgar Allan. "Bulwer's Riezni." Southern Literary Messenger 2 (February 1836): 196-201; reprinted The Complete Works of Edgar Allan Poe. Ed. J. A. Harrison. 17 vols. New York: T. Y. Crowell, 1902; New York: AMS, 1965, 1979. 8:222-229.

Poteet, Lewis J. "Dorian Gray and the Gothic Novel." Modern Fiction Studies. 17 (1971): 239-48.

Punter, David. "Narrative and Psychology in Gothic Fiction." Ed. Graham, Kenneth W. Gothic Fictions: Prohibition/Transgression. New York: AMS, 1989. 1-27

Richards, Thomas. "The Philosophy of Apparitions." Fraser's 2 (August 1830): 33-41.

Ringe, Donald A. American Gothic: Imagination and Reason in Nineteenth-Century Fiction. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1982.

Rogers, Robert. A Psychoanalytic Study of the Double in Literature. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1970.

Rosenfield, Claire. "The Conscious and Unconscious Use of the Double." Ed. Guerard, Albert J. Stories of the Double. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1967. 311-31

Sapora, Carol Baker. "Female Doubling: The other Lily Bart in Edith Wharton's The House of Mirth." Papers on Language and Literature. 29 (Fall 1993): 371-94.

Savoy, Eric. "Spectres of Abjection: The Queer Subject of James's 'The Jolly Corner.'." Ed. Glennis, Byron and David Punter. Spectral Readings: Towards a Gothic Geography. New York: St. Martins', Macmillan, 1999. 161-74

Schleifer, Ronald. "The Trap of the Imagination: The Gothic Tradition, Fiction, and The Turn of the Screw." Criticism: A Quarterly for Literature and the Arts. 22 (1980): 297-319.

Schleifer, Ronald. "The Trap of the Imagination: The Gothic Tradition, Fiction, and The Turn of the Screw." Ed. Cornwell, Neil and Maggie Malone. The Turn of the Screw and What Maisie Knew. New York: St. Martins', Macmillan, 1998. 19-41

Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. "Murder Incorporated: Confessions of a Justified Sinner." Between Men: English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire. New York: Columbia University Press, 1985.

Selinger, Bernie. "The Nature and Function of the Double." Sphinx. 2 (Summer 1977): 37-51.

Seppanen, Aimo. "On the Use of the Dual in Gothic." Zeitschrift fur Deutsches Altertum und Deutsche Literatur. 114.1 (1985): 1-41.

Sheldan, Pamela J. "The Shock of Ambiguity: Brockden Brown's Wieland and the Gothic Tradition." Dekalb Literary Arts Journal. 10.4 (1977): 17-26.

Sheridan, Daniel P. "Later Victorian Ghost Stories: The Literature of Belief." Gothic. 2.2 (1980): 33-39.

Sheridan, Daniel P. "Later Victorian Ghosts: Supernatural Fiction and Social Attitudes, 1870-1900." Diss. Northwestern University, 1974.

Smith, Andrew. "The Gothic Sublime: A Study of the Changing Function of Sublimity in Representations of Subjectivity in Nineteenth Century Fantasy Fiction." Diss. University of Southampton, 1994. DA 56:4 (Winter 1995): 3143C.

Smith, Elton and Robert Hass, ed. The Haunted Mind. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 1999.

Smyth, Paul Rockwood. "Gothic Influences in Henry James's Major Fiction." Diss. DA 41:9 (March 1981): 4036A.

Smythe, Karen. "Imaging and Imagining: 'The Jolly Corner' and Self-Construction." Dalhousie Review. 70 (Fall 1990): 375-85.

Stoddart, Helen. "'The Precautions of Nervous People are Infectious': Sheridan Le Fanu's Symptomatic Gothic." The Modern Language Review. 86.1 (January 1991): 19-34.

Sullivan, John Russell, Jr. "The English Ghost Story from Le Fanu to Blackwood." Diss. Columbia University, 1976; Published as Jack Sullivan. Elegant Nightmares: The English Ghost Story from Le Fanu to Blackwood. Athens, OH, Ohio University Press, 1978.

Susan, Gillman and Forrest G. Robinson. Mark Twain's Pudd'nhead Wilson: Race, Conflict, and Culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1990.

Thornburg, Mary K. Patterson. The Monster in the Mirror: Gender and the Sentimental/Gothic Myth in Frankenstein. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1987.

Thur, Robert. "Longing for Union: The Doppelgänger in Wuthering Heights and Frankenstein." Diss. DA 37 (1977): 4172B.

Tigges, Wim. "The Split Personality and Other Gothic Elements in David Linday's A Voyage to Arcturus." Ed. Villani, Valeria Tinkler, et al. Exhibited by Candlelight: Sources and Developments in the Gothic Tradition. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1995. 243-54

Tymms, Ralph. Doubles in Literary Psychology. Cambridge, England: Bowes and Bowes, 1949.

Varma, Devendra P. The Gothic Flame New York: Russell and Russell, 1966.

Varnado, S. L. Haunted Presence: The Numinous in Gothic Fiction. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1987.

Wain, Marianne. "The Double in Romantic Narrative: A Preliminary Study." The Germanic Review. 36.4 (December 1961): 258-68.

Ware, Tracy. "The Two Stories of William Wilson." Studies in Short Fiction. 23 (Winter 1989): 43-8.

Watt, Stephen. "O'Neill and Otto Rank: Doubles, 'Death Instincts,' and the Trauma of Birth." Comparative Drama. 20 (Fall 1986): 211-30.

Webber, Andrew J. The Doppelgänger: Double Visions in German Literature. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press, 1996.

Weston, Ruth Deason. "Nothing So Mundane as Ghosts: Eudora Welty and the Gothic." Diss. DA 49:4 (October 1988): 821A-822A.

Wiesenthal, Christ. Figuring Madness in Nineteenth Century Fiction. New York: St. Martins' Press, 1997.

Wilt, Judith. Ghosts of the Gothic: Austen, Eliot, and Lawrence. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980.

Yarrow, Ralph. "Consciousness as Doubt." Twentieth Century Literature. 30 (Winter 1984): 465-74.

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Select Interdisciplinary Sources

Abse, D. W. "Delusional Identity and the Double." Psychiatry: Journal for the Study of Interpersonal Processes. 39.2 (May 1976): 163-75.

Alvarado, Carlos S. and Nancy L. Zingrone. "Characteristics of Hauntings With and Without Apparitions: An Analysis of Published Cases." Journal for the Society for Psychical Research. 60.841 (October 1995): 385-97.

Crawford, John W. "'The Secret Sharer': A Touchstone for 'William Wilson.'." Journal of Evolutionary Psychology. 13.3 (March 1984): 81-85.

De Nooy, Juliana. "The Double Scission: Dallenbach, Dolezel, and Derrida on Doubles." Style (DeKalb I11) . 25 (Spring 1991): 19-27.

Doniger, Wendy. "Sexual Doubles." Parabola. 19 (Summer 1994): 33-40.

Freud, Sigmund. "The Uncanny." Ed. Straches, James. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. London: Hogarth Press, 1955.

Freud, Sigmund. "The Psychopathology of Everyday Life." Ed. Brill, A. A. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud. New York: Modern Library, 1938.

Gibson, E. P. "An Examination of Motivation as Found in Selected Cases from Phantasms of the Living." Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research. 38 (1944): 83-105.

Glicksohn, Joseph, Iris Steinbach, Malmilyan Elimalach. "Cognitive Dedifferentiation in Eidetics and Synaesthesia: Hunting for the Ghost Once More." Perception. 28.1 (1999): 109-120.

Gorgov, F. D. "The Origins of Psychological States." Voprosy Psikhologii. 17.5 (September 1971): 20-29.

Hamilton, James W. "The Doppelgänger Effect in the Relationship Between Joseph Conrad and Bertrand Russell." International Review of Psychoanalysis. 6.2 (1979): 175-81.

Hume, David. A Treatise of Human Nature. Ed. L. A. Selby-Bigge. London: Oxford University Press, 1888.

Jackson, Frank and Philip Pettit. "Functionalism and Broad Content." Mind. 97 (July 1988): 381-400.

Jaynes, Julian. Origins of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1990.

Jung, Carl. Aion: Researches into the Phenomenology of the Self. R.F.C. Hull, trans. Bollingen Series XX, Vol. IX, Part II. New York: Pantheon Books, 1959.

Kracke, Waud. "Dreams, Ghosts, Tales: Parintintin Imagination." Psychoanalytic Review. 84.2 (April 1997): 273-280.

Kramer, Lawrence. "Revenants: Masculine Thresholds in Schubert, James, and Freud." Modern Language Quarterly. 57 (September 1996): 449-77.

Krauss, Wilhelmine. "Das Doppelgängermotiv in der Romantik: Studien zum Romantischen Idealismus." Germanische Studien, Heft 99. Berlin: Verlog von Emil: Ebering, 1930.

Kurth, Richard. "Music and Poetry, a Wilderness of Doubles: Heine, Nietzsche, Schubert, Derrida." 19th Century Music. 21 (Summer 1997): 3-37.

Maack, Lara H. and Paul E. Mullen. "The Doppelgänger, Disintigration, and Death: A Case Report." Psychological Medicine. 13.3 (August 1983): 651-54.

Mahoney, Dennis F. "Double into Doppelgänger: The Genesis of the Doppelgänger-Motif in the Novels of Jean Paul and E. T. A. Hoffmann." Journal of Evolutionary Psychology. 4.1-2 (April 1983): 54-63.

Martin, Raymond. "Self-Interest and Survival." American Philosophical Quarterly. 29 (October 1992): 319-30.

McNamara, Patrick. "Memory, Double, Shadow, and Evil." Journal of Analytical Psychology. 39.2 (April 1994): 233-251.

Mills, Eugene. "Dividing Without Reducing: Bodily Fission and Personal Identity." Mind. 102 (January 1993): 37-51.

Nilsen, Don L. F. "Doppelgängers and Doubles in Literature: A Study in Tragicomic Incongruity." Humor: International Journal of Humor Research. 11.2 (1998): 111-133.

Opie, Eugene L. "Relation of Visual Illusions to Memory." Diseases of the Nervous System. 29.8 (1968): 110-28.

Owens, David. "Mental Content: Doppelgänger." Mind. 99 (January 1990): 113-22.

Owens, Joseph. "In Defense of a Different Doppelgänger." The Philosophical Review. 96 (October 1987): 521-54.

Patrick, Marietta S. "The Doppelgänger Motif in Arthur Mervyn." Journal of Evolutionary Psychology. 13.3 (August 1984): 91-101.

Persinger, M. A., S. G. Tiller, and S. A. Koren. "Experimental Simulation of a Haunt Experience and Elicitation of Paroxysmal Electroencephalographic Activity by Transcerebral Complex Magnetic Fields: Induction of a Synthetic 'Ghost'?" Perceptual and Motor Skills. 90.2 (April 2000): 659-74.

Pitts, Walter and Warren S. McCulloch. "How We Know Universals: The Perception of Auditory and Visual Forms." Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics. 9 (1947): 127-47.

Price, H. H. "Apparitions: Two Theories." Journal of Parapsychology. 24 (1960): 110-28.

Prince, Morton. The Dissociation of Personality. New York: Longmans Green and Company, 1905.

Rank, Otto. "The Double as Immortal Self." Beyond Psychology. New York: Dover, 1958. 62-101

Rank, Otto. The Double: A Psychoanalytic Study. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1971.

Rank, Otto. Der Doppelgänger: Eine Psychoanalytische Studie. Leipzig: Internationaler Psychoanalytischer Verlag, 1925.

Rovane, Carol. "Branching Self-Consciousness." The Philosophical Review. 99 (July 1990): 355-95.

Rowlands, Mark. "Discussion of Jackson and Pettit, Functionalism, and Broad Content." Mind. 98 (April 1989): 269-75.

Schabelitz. "Invasion into the Territory of Parapsychology: Attempt at an Optical-Physiological Explanation of the Emergence, Wandering, and Vanishing of Spectral Apparitions, on the Basis of Personal Experience." Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift. Part I (1938): 156-157.

Schmidtbonn, Wilhelm. Der Doppelgänger. Berlin: Deutsche Buch-Gemeinschaft, 1928.

Schwartz, Hillel. The Culture of Copy: Striking Likenesses, Unreasonable Facsimilies. New York: Zone Books, 1996.

Schwartz, Hillel. "The Legend of the Vanishing Twin." Parabola. 19 (Summer 1994): 70-4.

Siegel, Ronald K. Fire in the Brain: Clinical Tales of Hallucination. New York: Plume/Penguin Books, 1993.

Smith, Virginia Whatley. "Sorcery, Double-Consciousness, and Warring Souls: An Intertextual Reading of Middle Passage and Captain Blackman." African American Review. 30 (Winter 1996): 659-74.

Tyrrell, G. N. M. Apparitions. London: Society for Psychical Research, 1942.

Vanskike, Elliott. "Consistent Inconsistencies: The Transvestite Actress Madame Vestris and Charlotte Bronte's Shirley." Nineteenth Century Literature. 50 (March 1996): 464-88.

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Sources Consulted

[The following sources were consulted in the creation of this bibliography.]

American Psychological Association. PsychLIT. CD-ROM. SilverPlatter International, 1990-Present.

Barron, Neil. Horror Literature: A Reader's Guide. New York: Garland, 1990

Bleiler, Everett Franklin. The Guide to Supernatural Fiction. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1983.

Carter, Margaret L[ouise]. Specter or Delusion? The Supernatural in Gothic Fiction. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1987.

Crook, Eugene J., Ed. Fearful Symmetry: Doubles and Doubling in Literature and Film. Tallahassee: Florida State University Press, 1981.

Fisher, Benjamin Franklin, IV. The Gothic's Gothic. New York: Garland, 1988.

Fonseca, Anthony J. and June Michele Pullium. Hooked on Horror: A Guide to Reading Interests in Horror Fiction. Englewood: Libraries Unlimited, 1999.

Frank, Frederick S. The First Gothics: A Critical Guide to the English Gothic Novel. New York: Garland, 1987.

Guerard, Albert, Ed. Stories of the Double. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1967.

H. W. Wilson Company. Humanities Abstracts. CD-ROM. SilverPlatter International, 1990.

H. W. Wilson Company. Social Sciences Abstracts. CD-ROM. SilverPlatter International, 1999.

Keppler, C. F. The Literature of the Second Self. Tuscon: University of Arizona Press, 1972.

Miller, Karl. Doubles: Studies in Literary History. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Modern Language Association of America. MLA International Bibliography. CD-ROM. SilverPlatter International, 1990-Present.

Rogers, Robert. A Psychoanalytic Study of the Double in Literature. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1970.

Spector, Robert Donald. The English Gothic. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1984.

Tracy, Anne B. The Gothic Novel, 1790-1830.: Plot Summaries and Index to Motifs. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1981.

Tymm, Marshall B. Horror Literature: A Core Collection and Reference Guide. New York: R. R. Bowker, 1981.

Varma, Devendra P. The Gothic Flame New York: Russell and Russell, 1966.

Wilt, Judith. Ghosts of the Gothic: Austen, Eliot, and Lawrence. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980.

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Contributing editor Aaron Leis is a writer, editor, and doctoral student in Denton Texas, where he also slings used books in a century-old opera house and enjoys watching Guinness settle.





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