ABOUT | MAIN | SUBMISSIONS


Linguistic Humor
(includes slang, wit, and wordplay)


—a bibliography by Don L. F. Nilsen—

[first published at REDES ]





Aarts, Bas, David Denison, Evelien Keizer, and Georgia Popova, eds. Fuzzy Grammar: A Reader. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Adrjan, Pawel, and Javier Muñoz-Basols. "The Sound of Humor: Linguistic and Semantic Constraints in the Translation of Phonological Jokes." SKY: Journal of Linguistics 16 (2003): 241-248.

Al-Khatib, Mahmoud A. "Joke-Telling in Jordanian Society: A Sociolinguistic Perspective." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 12.3 (1999): 261-288.

Alexander, Richard J. Aspects of Verbal Humour in English. Tubingen, Germany: Gunter Narr Verlag, 1997.

Antonopoulou, Eleni, and Maria Sifianou. "Conversational Dynamics of Humour: The Telephone Game in Greek." Journal of Pragmatics 35.5 (2003): 741-769.

Apte, Mahadev L. Humor and Communication in Contemporary Marathi Theater: A Sociolinguistic Perspective. Pune, India: Linguistic Society of India, 1992.

Apte, Mahadev L., ed. "Special Issue on Language and Humor." International Journal of the Sociology of Language 65 (1987).

Archakis, Argiris, and Villy Tsakona. "Analyzing Conversational Data in GTVH Terms: A New Approach to the Issue of Identity Constuction via Humor." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 18.1 (2005): 41-68.

Attardo, Salvatore. "Humor." Handbook of Pragmatics (1996): 1-18.

Attardo, Salvatore. Humorous Texts: A Semantic and Pragmatic Analysis. New York, NY: Mouton de Gruyter, 2001.

Attardo, Salvatore. "Introduction: The Pragmatics of Humor." Journal of Pragmatics 35.9 (2003): 1287-1294.

Attardo, Salvatore. "A Rejoinder to W. Chlopicki's Report on the Analysis of Verbal Humor in Short Stories." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 10.3 (1997): 347-348.

Attardo, Salvatore. Linguistic Theories of Humor. New York, NY: Mouton, 1994.

Attardo, Salvatore. "The Semantic Foundations of Cognitive Theories of Humor." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 10.4 (1997): 395-420.

Attardo, Salvatore. "The Violation of Grice's Maxims in Jokes." Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society. Ed. Kira Hall et. al. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1990, 355-362.

Attardo, Salvatore, and Jean-Charles Chabanne. "Jokes as a Text Type." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 5.1 (1992): 165-176.

Attardo, Salvatore, and Victor Raskin. "Script Theory Revis(it)ed: Joke Similarity and Joke Representation Model." Humor: International Journal of Humor Research. 4.3-4 (1991): 293-348.

Augarde, Tony. The Oxford Guide to Word Games. Oxford, England: Oxford Press, 1984.

Bagemihl, B. "The Crossing Constraint and Backwards Language." Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 7 (1989): 481-649.

Baron, Dennis. Declining Grammar and Other Essays on the English Vocabulary. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English, 1989.

Basso, Keith H. Portraits of "The Whiteman": Linguistic Play and Cultural Symbols among the Western Apache. London, England: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

Bateson, Gregory. "The Position of Humor in Human Communication." Motivation in Humor. Ed. Jacob Levine. New York, NY: Atherton Press, 1969, 159-166.

Bateson, Gregory. "The Theory of Play and Fantasy." Steps to an Ecology of Mind. Ed. G. Bateson. San Francisco, CA: Chandler, 1972, 177-193.

Belz, Julie A. Multilingual Foreign Language Play. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, Under Contract.

Berry, Lester V., and Melvin Van Den Bark. The American Thesaurus of Slang. Second Edition. New lYork, NY: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1953.

Birnbaum, Lawrence. "Inferential Memory and Linguistic Creativity." Metaphor and Symbolic Activity 5.3 (1990): 175-94.

Blair, Walter, and Raven I. McDavid, Jr., eds. The Mirth of a Nation: America's Great Dialect Humor. Minneapolis: Univ of Minnesota Press, 1983.

Bonaiuto, Marino, Elio Castellana, and Antonio Pierro. "Arguing and Laughing: The Use of Humor to Negotiate in Group Discussions."  HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 16.2 (2003): 183-224.

Brandes, Stanley. "Jewish American Dialect Jokes and Jewish-American Identity." Jewish Social Studies 45 (1983): 233-240.

Branscombe, Amanda. "'But, It Ain't Real!': Pretense in Children''s Play and Literacy Development." Play and Early Literacy Development. Ed. Christie, James F. New York: SUNY Press, 1991, 91-118.

Brock, Alexander. "Analyzing Scripts in Humorous Communication." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 17.4 (2004): 353-360.

Brône, Geert, and Kurt Feyaerts. "Assessing the SSTH and GTVH: A View from Cognitive Linguistics." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 17.4 (2004): 361-372.

Bucaria, Chiara. "Lexical and Syntactic Ambiguity as a Source of Humor: The Case of Newspaper Headlines." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 17.3 (2004): 279-310.

Burke, William J. The Literature of Slang. New York, NY: New York Public Library, 1965.

Burnes, Bryan. "Byron so Full of Fun, Frolic, Wit, and Whim." Huntington Library Quarterly 37 (1974): 171-189.

Carlson, L. "Well" in Dialogue Games." Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjaminss Press, 1984.

Carrell, Amy T. "Audience/Community, Situation, and Language: A Linguistic/Rhetorical Theory of Verbal Humor." Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University, 1993.

Carrell, Amy T. "Humor Communities." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 10.1 (1997): 12-24.

Chafe, Wallace. "Humor as a Disabling Mechanism." American Behavioral Scientist. 30.3 (1987): 16-26.

Chapman, Robert L. The HarperCollins Reference Library of American Slang. New York, NY: HarperCollins, 1987.

Chiaro, D. The Language of Jokes: Analysing Verbal Play. New York, NY: Routledge, 1992.

Chlopicki, Wladyslaw. "An Approach to the Analysis of Verbal Humor in Short Stories." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 10.3 (1997): 333-346.

Christie, James F. "Play and Early Literacy Development: Summary and Discussion."Play and Early Literacy Development. Ed. Christie, James F. New York: SUNY Press, 1991, 233-246.

Christie, James F. "Psychological Research on Play: Connections with Early Literacy Development." Play and Early Literacy Development. Ed. Christie, James F. New York: SUNY Press, 1991, 27-46.

Cliff, R. "Irony in Conversation." Language in Society 28.4 (1999): 523-553.

Cohen, Gerald. The Language of Humor. London, England: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Collins, Christopher. Reading the Written Image: Verbal Play, Intrepretation, and the Roots of Iconophobia. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1991.

Cook, Guy. Language Play, Language Learning. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Cooper, Thomas C. "`Does it suck'? Or `is it for the birds'?" Native Speaker Judgment of Slang Expressions." American Speech 71.1 (2001): 63-77.

Cowan, G. "Mazateco Whistled Speech." Language 24 (1948): 280-286.

Crawford, Mary. "Gender and Humor in Social Context" Journal of Pragmatics 35.9 (2003): 1413-1430.

Crystal, David. Language Play. London, England: Penguin, 1998.

Dalzell, Tom. Flappers 2 Rappers: American Youth Slang. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, 1996.

Davies, Catherine Evans. "How English-Learners Joke with Native Speakers: An Interactional Sociolinguistic Perspective on Humor as Collaborative Discourse across Cultures." Journal of Pragmatics 35.9 (2003): 1361-1385.

Davies, Christie. "Change and Continuity in One of Europe's Oldest Comic Ethnic Scripts." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 12.1 (1999): 1-32.

Davies, Christie. "Language, Identity, and Ethnic Jokes about Stupidity." International Journal of the Sociology of Language 65 (1987): 39-52.

Davies, Christie. "Victor Raskin on Jokes." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 17.4 (2004): 373-380.

Dienhart, John M. "A Linguistic Look at Riddles." Journal of Pragmatics 31 (1998): 95-125.

Delabastita, Dirk. There's a Double Tongue: An Investigation into the Translation of Shakespeare's Wordplay, with Special Reference to "Hamlet". Amsterdam, Holland: Rodopi, 1993.

Dickson, Paul. Words: A Connoisseur's Collection. NY: Delacorte, 1982.

Dienhart, John M. "A Linguistic Look at Riddles." Journal of Pragmatics 31 (1998): 95-125.

Dienhart, John M. "Triggers and Targets: A Lilnguistic Look at Humor" 88 PEO 88 (1997).

Dixon, Wallace E., and Cecilia Shore. "Language Style Dimensions and Symbolic Play." Journal of Play Theory and Research 1.4 (1993): 259-270.

Dolitsky, M. "Humor and the Unsaid." Journal of Pragmatics. 7.1 (1983): 39-48.

Drew, P. "Po-Faced Receipts of Teases." Linguistics 25 (1987): 219-253.

Duchicek, Otto "Les Jeux de Mots du Point de vue Linguistique." Beitrage zur Romanschen Philologie 9.1 (1970): 107-117.

Eble, Connie. "American College Slang." Focus on the USA, Ed. Edgar W. Schneider. Philadelplhia, PA: John Benjamins, 1996, 289-296.

Eble, Connie. Slang and Sociability. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Eisenberg, Ann R. "Teasing: Verbal Play in Two Mexicano Homes." Language Socialization across Cultures Eds. B. B. Shieffelin, and E. Ochs. Cambridge, England: Cambridlge University Press, 1990.

Ernst, T., and E. Smith, eds. Lingua Pranca. Bloomington, IN: Indiana Univ, 1978.

Ernst, T., and E. Smith, eds. Son of Lingua Pranca. Bloomington, IN: Indiana Univ, 1979.

Eschholz, Paul A., and Alfred F. Rosa. "Course Names: Another Aspect of College Slang." American Speech 45.1 (1970): 85-90

Espy, Willard R. An Almanac of Words at Play. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 1975.

Espy, Willard R. Another Almanac of Words at Play. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 1980.

Espy, Willard R. A Children's Almanac of Words at Play. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 1982.

Espy, Willard R. The Game of Words. New York: Bramhall House, 1972.

Espy, Willard R. Have a Word on Me. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, 1981.

Everts, Elisa. "Identifying a Particular Family Humor Style: A Sociolinguistic Discourse Analysis." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 16.4 (2003): 369-412.

Farb, Peter. Word Play: What Happens When People Talk. New York: Bantam, 1973.

Feldman, Gilda, and Phil Feldman. Acronym Soup: A Stirring Guide to Our Newest Word Form. New York, NY: Morrow, 1994.

Flexner, Stuart Berg. I Hear America Talking: An Illustrated Treasury of American Words and Phrases. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1976.

Fowles, B., and M. E. Glanz. "Competence and Talent in Verbal Riddle Comprehension." Journal of Child Language 4 (1977): 433-452.

Fromkin, Victoria, and Robert Rodman. An Introduction to Language. 6th edition. New York, NY: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1998.

Geller, Linda Gibson. Word Play and Language Learning for Children. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1985.

Gerrig, Richard J., and Raymond W. Gibbs, Jr. "Beyond the Lexicon: Creativity in Language Production." Metaphor and Symbolic Activity 3.1 (1988): 1-20.

Gibbs, R. W. "On the Psycholinguistics of Sarcasm." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 115 (1986): 3-15.

Giora, Rachel. "On the Cognitive Aspects of the Joke." Journal of Pragmatics 16 (1991): 465-485.

Giora, Rachel. On Our Mind: Salience, Context, and Figurative Language. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Goerlach, Manfred. "Linguistic Aspects of Jokes." Tradition and Postmodernity: English and American Studies and the Challenge of the Future. Krakow, Poland: Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, 2000, 53-67.

Goldstein, Jeffrey H. "Theoretical Notes on Humor." Journal of Communication 26 (1976): 104-111.

Goldstein, Lawrence. "The Linguistic Interest of Verbal Humor." Humor: International Journal of Humor Research 3.1 (1990): 37-52.

González, Félix Rodríguez. "Abbreviations and American Slang." English Today (July, 1992): 39-44.

Gordon, Karen Elizabeth. The Transitive Vampire: A Handbook of Grammar for the Innocent, the Eager, and the Doomed. New York: Times Books, 1984.

Graesser, Arthur C., Debra L. Long, and Jeffery S. Mio. "What Are the Cognitive and Conceptual Components of Humorous Text?" Poetics 18 (1989): 143-163.

Green, T. A., and W. J. Pepicello. "Wit in Riddling: A Linguistic Perspective." Genre 2 (1978): 1-13.

Groeben, Norbert, and Brigitte Scheele. Produktion und Rezeption von Ironie: Pragma-Linguistische Beschreibung und Psycho-Linguistische Erklaerungshypothesen. Tebingen, Germany: Narr, 1984.

Guiraud, Pierre. "Typologie des Jeux de Mots." Le Francais dans le Monde 151 (1981): 36-44.

Hall, Nigel. "Play and the Emergence of Literacy." Play and Early Literacy Development. Ed. Christie, James F. New York: SUNY Press, 1991, 3-26.

Hall, Rich. Sniglets (Snig'lit)--Any Word That Doesn't Appear in the Dictionary, but Should. New York, NY: Collier Books, 1984.

Hancher, M. "How to Play Games with Words: Speech-Act Jokes." Journal of Literary Semantics 9 (1980): 20-29.

Harrison, James S. Confusion Reigns: A Quick and Easy Guide to the Most Easily Mixed-Up Words. NY: St. Martin's, 1987.

Haugen, Einar. "Bilinguals Have More Fun!" Journal of the English Language 19 (1986): 106-120.

Hauptman, Don. Acronymania. New York, NY: Bantam/Doubleday/Dell/Laurel, 1993.

Hauptman, Don. Cruel and Unusual Puns. New York, NY: Dell/Laurel, 1991.

Hay, Jennifer. "Functions of Humor in the Conversations of Men and Women." Journal of Pragmatics 32.6 (2000): 709-742.

Hay, Jennifer. "Jocular Abuse in Mixed Gender Interaction." Wellington Working Papers in Linguistics 6 (1994): 26-55.

Hay, Jennifer. "The Pragmatics of Humor Support." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research. 14.1 (2001): 55-82.

Hill, Carl. The Soul of Wit. Omaha, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1993.

Hockett, Charles. "Where the Tongue Slips, There Slip I." To Honor Roman Jakobson. The Hague, Netherlands: Mouton, 1967, 910-936.

Holmes, Janet. "Politeness, Power, and Provocation: How Humour Functions in the Workplace." Discourse Studies 2.2 (2000): 159-185.

Holmes, Janet, and Meredith Marra. "Humour as a Discursive Boundary Marker in Social Interaction." in Us and Others: Social Identitites across Languages, Discourses, and CulturesEd. Anna Duszak. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins, 2002, 377-400.

Holmes, Janet, and Stephanie Schnurr. "Politeness, Humor and Gender in the Workplace: Negotiating Norms and Identifying Contestation." Journal of Politeness Research: Language, Behaviour and Culture 1.1 (2005): 121-149.

Hombert, J. "Speaking Backwards in Bakwiri." Studies in African Linguistics 4 (1973): 227-236.

Hulstijn, J., and A. Nijholt eds. Twente Workshop on Language Technology 12: Automatic Interpretation and Generation of Verbal Humor. Twente, Netherlands: University of Twente Dept of Computer Science 1996.

Hymes, Dell. "A Pattern of Verbal Irony in Chinookan." International Journal of the Sociology of Language 65 (1987): 97-110.

Iser, Wolfgang. "The Play of the Text." Languages of the Unsayable: The Play of Negativity in Literature and Literary Theory. Ed. Sanford Budick and Wolfgang Iser. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1989, 325-339.

Jefferson, Gail. "On the Organization of Laughter in Talk about Troubles." Structures of Social Action: Studies in Conversational Analysis. Eds. J. Atkinson and J. Heritage. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1979, 346-369.

Jefferson, Gail. "A Technique for Inviting Laughter and its Subsequent Acceptance/Declination." Everyday Language: Studies in Ethnomethodology. Ed. G. Psathas. New York, NY: Irvington, 1984, 79-96.

Jordan, David K. "Esperanto: The International Language of Humor; Or, What's Funny About Esperanto?" HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 1.2 (1988): 143-157.

Keller-Guenther, Yvonne. "Teasing." Western Journal of Communication 60.4 (1996): 337-355.

Kemper, Susan. "Inferential Processing and the Comprehension of Idioms." Metaphor and Symbolic Activity 1.1 (1986): 43-56.

Kersten, Holger. "Culture Wrapped in Broken Speech: `Hans Breitmann's' Humorous Achievement." Essays in Arts and Sciences 27 (1998): 37-52.

Kersten, Holger. "Mark Twain and the Funny Magic of the German Language." New Directions in American Humor. Ed. David E. E. Sloan. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 1998, 284-305.

Kersten, Holger. "Nonsense, Satire, and Language Art: George V. Hobart's German-American Dialect Writing." Thalia: Studies in Literary Humor 19.1-2 (2000): 43-51.

Kersten, Holger. "William Henry Drummond and American Dialect Poetry." Informal Empire? Cultural Relations between Canada, the United States, and Europe. Eds. Peter Easingwood, Conrad Gross, and Hartmut Lutz. Kiel, Germany: L & F Publishers, 1998, 149-167.

Kess, Joseph F., and Ronald A. Hoppe. Ambiguity in Psycholinguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1981.

Kiesling, Scott Fabius. "Men's Identities and Sociolinguistic Variation: The Case of Fraternity Men." Journal of Socioilinguistics 2.1 (1998): 69-99.

Kirshenblatt, Gimblett, Barbara, ed. Speech Play. Philadelphia: Univ of Penna Press, 1976.

Koren, Roselyne. "Argumentation and the Comic in the Works of Some French Linguists." Humor: International Journal of Humor Research. 5.1-2 (1992): 91-110.

Kotthoff, Helga. "Coherent Keying in Conversational Humour: Contextualising Joint Fictionalisation." Coherence in Spoken and Written Discourse Eds. Wolfram Bublitz, Uta Lenk, and Eija Ventola. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Benjamins, 1999, 125-150.

Kotthoff, Helga. "Inpoliteness and Conversational Humor." Folia Linguistica 30.3-4 (1998): 299-325.

Kotthoff, Helga. "Oal Performance in Interactional Sociolinguistics: Funny Stories among Friends." Toegepaste Taalwetenschap in Artikelen t52.2 (1995): 299-327.

Kotthoff, Helga. "Responding to Irony in Different Contexts: On Cognition in Conversation." Journal of Pragmatics 35.9 (2003): 1387-1411.

Labov, William. "Rules for Ritual Insults." Studies in Social Interaction. Ed. David Sudnow. New York, NY: The Free Press, 1972, 120-169.

Lakoff, George. Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal about the Mind. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1982.

Lakoff, George, and Mark Turner. More than Cool Reason: A Field Guide to Poetic Metaphor. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1989.

Lampert, Martin D., and Susan Ervin-Tripp. "Risky Laughter: Teasing and Self-Directed Joking among Male and Female Friends." Journal of Pragmatics, In Press.

Lapp, Edgar. Linguistik der Ironie. Tubingen, Germany, Narr, 1992.

Laurian, Anne-Marie. "Possible/Impossible Translation of Jokes." Humor: International Journal of Humor Research 5.1-2 (1992): 111-128.

Laurian, Ann-Marie, and Don L. F. Nilsen, eds. "Special Issue on Humor and Translation." META: Journal des Traducteurs 34.1 (1989).

Lederer, Richard. The Bride of Anguished English: A Bonus of Bloopers, Blunders, Botches, and Boo-Boos. New York, NY: St Martin's Press, 2000.

Lederer, Richard. The Play of Words: Fun and Games for Language Lovers. NY: Pocket Books, 1990.

Lederer, Richard. Word Circus: A Letter-Perfect Book. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, 1998.

Levenson, Sam. "The Dialect Comedian Should Vanish." Commentary 14 (1952): 168-170.

Lew, Robert. "Exploitation of Linguistic Ambiguity in Polish and English Jokes." Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics 31 (1996): 127-133.

Lew, Robert. "Towards a Taxonomy of Linguistic Jokes." Studia Anglica Posnaniensia 31 (1997): 124-152.

Lillo, Antonio. "Bees, Nelsons, and Sterling Denominations; A Brief Look at Cockney Slang and Coinage." Journal of English Linguistics 28.2 (2000): 145-172.

Lillo, Antonio. "Linguistic Xenophobia in Rhyming Slang." English Studies (2001): 336-348.

Lippman, Louis G., and M. L. Dunn. "Contextual Connections within Puns: Effects on Perceived Humor and Memory." Journal of General Psychology 127 (2000): 185-197.

Liu, Fuchang. "Humor as Violations of the Reality Principle." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 8.2 (1995): 177-190.

Long, D. L., and A. C. Graesser. "Wit and Humor in Discourse Processing." Discourse Processes 20.2 (1989): 151-166.

Loomis, G. "Traditional American Wordplay, Part I." Western Folklore 8 (1949): 1-21.

Loomis, G. "Traditional American Wordplay, Part II." Western Folklore 9 (1950): 147-152.

Macaulay, Ronald K. S. "Chattering, Nattering, and Blethering: Informal Interviews as Speech Events." Studies in Language Ecology Eds. Werner Enninger, and Lilith M. Haynes. Wiesbaden, Germany: Franzz Steiner Verlag, 1984, 51-64.

Macaulay, Ronald K. S. "The Social Significance of Scottish Dialect Humor." International Journal of the Sociology of Language 65 (1987): 53-66.

Macrae, Daniel. National Humor. New York, NY: Frederick A. Stokes, n.d.

Mahony, Diana L. "The Mechanical Mind: Bergson Meets the Information Processing Model." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 12.2 (1999): 161-176.

Mahony, Diana L., and Virginia A. Mann. "Using Children's Humor to Clarify the Relationship between Linguistic Awareness and Early Reading Ability." Cognition 45 (1992): 163-186.

Mahood, M. M. Shakespeare's Wordplay. London, England: Methuen, 1957.

Makri-Tsilipakou, Marianthi. "Laughing their Way: Gender and Conversational Mirth." Working Papers in Language, Gender and Sexism 4.1 (1994): 15-50.

Martinez, Miriam, Markay Cheney, and William H. Teale. "Classroom Literature Activities and Kindergartners' Dramatic Story Enactments." Play and Early Literacy Development. Ed. Christie, James F. New York: SUNY Press, 1991, 119-140.

Mbangwana, Paul. "Some Instances of Linguistic and Literary Resource in Certain Humorous Cameroonianisms." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research. 6.2 (1993): 195-222.

Michelson, Bruce. Literary Wit. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 2000.

Mieder, Wolfgang, and Anna Tóthné. Twisted Wisdom: Modern Anti-Proverbs. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, 1999.

Milner, George B. "Homo Ridens: Toward a Semiotic Theory of Humor and Laughter." Semiotica 5 (1972): 1-30.

Mio, Jeffery S., and Arthur C. Graesser. "Humor, Language, and Metaphor." Metaphor and Symbolic Activity 6.2 (1991): 87-102.

Morreall, John. "Gossip and Humor." in Good Gossip. Eds. Robert F. Goodman and Aaron Ben Zeev. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1994, 56-64.

Morreall, John. "Sarcasm, Irony, Wordplay, and Humor in the Hebrew Bible: A Response to Hershey Friedman." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research. 14.3 (2001): 293-302.

Morreall, John. "Verbal Humor without Switching Scripts and without Non-Bona-Fide Communication." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 17.4 (2004): 393-400.

Morrow, Lesley Mandel, and Muriel Rand. "Preparing the Classroom Environment to Promote Literacy during Play." Play and Early Literacy Development. Ed. Christie, James F. New York: SUNY Press, 1991, 141-166.

Müller, Klaus. "Theatrical Moments: On Contextualizing Funny and Dramatic Moods in the Course of Telling a Story in Conversation." The Contextualization of Language Eds. Peter Auer and Aldo di Luzio. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Benjamins, 199-223.

Munro, Pamela, et. al. Slang U: The Official Dictionary of College Slang. New York, NY: Harmony Books, 1991.

Murray, Thomas E. "How College Slang is Like the Forty-Eight-Hour Dork Effect." American Speech 66.2 (1991): 220-223.

Murray, Thomas E. "The Nicknames of American Greek-Letter Organizations." Names 40.3 (1992): 173-189.

Nash, Walter. Language of Humor. Harlow, England: Longman, 1985.

Neuman, Susan B., and Kathy Roskos. "The Influence of Literacy-Enriched Play Centers on Preschoolers' Conceptions of the Functions of Print." Play and Early Literacy Development. Ed. Christie, James F. New York: SUNY Press, 1991, 167-188.

Nilsen, Alleen Pace. "Language for Fun: Humor in America." in Living Language: Reading, Thinking and Writing. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 1999, 195-228.

Nilsen, Alleen Pace, and Don L. F. Nilsen. "Allusion," "Ambiguity," "Computer Humor,""Dialect Humor," "International Wordplay," "Internet Influences," "Joke Patterns,"  "Language Play," "Puns,"  "Slang," "Wit." Encyclopedia of 20th Century American Humor. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000, 23-26, 97-104, 164-168, 174-181, 238-239, 283-286, 309-310.

Nilsen, Alleen Pace, and Don L. F. Nilsen. Vocabulary Plus--High Schook and Up: A Source Based Approach. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 2004.

Nilsen, Alleen Pace, and Don L. F. Nilsen. Vocabulary Plus--K-8: A Source Based Approach. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 2004.

Nilsen, Don L. F. "Language Play and Rhetorical Devices." Humor Scholarship: A Research Bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1993, 59-112.

Nilsen, Don L. F. "A Linguistic Analysis of Humor." The English Record 20.3 (1970): 41-56.

Nilsen, Don L. F. "The Logic of Non-Standard English." Indiana English 2.2 (1978): 8-12.

Nilsen, Don L. F. "The Nature of Humorous Modification." Montana English Journal 12.1 (1988): 16-21.

Nilsen, Don L. F. "Too Funny for Words: Humorous Body Signatures." Florida English Journal. 25.1 (1989): 47-52.

Nilsen, Don L. F. "Who is Rula Lenska? Some Thoughts on Reference." Verbatim 12.1 (1985): 6 and 8..

Nilsen, Don L. F., and Alleen Pace Nilsen. "Humor, Language, and Sex Roles in American Culture." International Journal of the Sociology of Language 65 (1987): 67-78.

Nilsen, Don L. F., and Alleen Pace Nilsen. Language Play: An Introduction to Linguistics. Rowley, MA: Newbury House, 1978.

Nirenburg, Sergei, and Victor Raskin. Ontological Semantics Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004.

Norrick, Neal. Conversational Joking: Humor in Everyday Talk. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1993.

Norrick, Neal. "A Frame-Theoretical Analysis of Verbal Humor: Bisociation as Schema Conflict." Semiotica 60 (1986): 225-245.

Norrick, Neal. "Intertextuality in Humor." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 2.2 (1989): 117-139.

Norrick, Neal. "Issues in Conversational Joking." Journal of Pragmatics 35.9 (2003): 1333-1359.

Norrick, Neal. "Non-Verbal Humor and Joke Performance." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 17.4 (2004): 401-410.

Norrick, Neal. "Repetition as a Conversational Joking Strategy." Repetition in Discourse. Ed. B. Johnstone. Norwood: Ablex, 1993.

Norrick, Neal. "Stock Conversational Witticisms." Journal of Pragmatics 8 (1984): 195-209.

Norrick, Neal. "From Wit to Comedy: Bisociation and Intertextuality." Semiotica 61 (1987): 113-125.

Norrick, Neal, and William Baker. "Metalingual Humor in Pinter's Early Plays." English Studies 76.3 (1995): 253-263.

Nunally, Thomas E. "Glossing the Folk: A Review of Lexical Research into American Slang and Americanisms." American Speech 76.2 (2001): 159-163.

Nurnberg, Maxwell. Fun with Words. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1970.

Nusbaum, Philip. "Jocular Conversation and Conversational Joke Telling: A Case Study." New York Folklore 20.1-2 (1994): 15-38.

Oaks, Dallin D. "Creating Structural Ambiguities in Humor: Getting English Grammar to Cooperate." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 7.4 (1994): 377-402.

Oaks, Dallin D. "Historical Roots of Structural Ambiguities in English: A Survey of Some Selectyed Grammatical Feataures." General Linguistics 36.1-2 (1998): 59-70.

Ohanian, Susan. "Wordplay." Learning. 17.8 (1988): 54-58.

Okolo, B. A. "Incongruency in Discourse: A Violation of the Cooperative Principle?" Meta 3 (1996): 378-388.

Palermo, David S. "From the Marble Mass of Language, A View of the Developing Mind." Metaphor and Symbolic Activity 1.1 (1986): 1-4.

Palmer, Jerry. "Theory of Comic Narrative: Semantic and Pragmatic Elements." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 1.2 (1988): 111-126.

Pellegrini, A. D., and Lee Galda. "Longitudinal Relations among Preschoolers' Symbolic Play: Metalinguistic Verbs, and Emergent Literacy." Play and Early Literacy Development. Ed. Christie, James F. New York: SUNY Press, 1991, 47-68.

Partridge, Eric, and Paul Beale. Shorter Slang Dictionary. New York, NY: Routledge, 1993.

Pepicello, William J. "Linguistic Strategies in Riddling." Western Folklore 39 (1980): 1-16.

Pepicello, William J., and Robert W. Weisberg. "Linguistics and Humor." Handbook of Humor Research. Volume 1. Eds. Paul McGhee and Jeffrey Goldstein. NY: Springer-Verlag, 1983, 59-84.

Pocheptsov, George G. Language and Humour. Kiev, Russia: Vysca Skola, 1982.

Postal, Paul M. Skeptical Linguistic Essays. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Postlewait, Thomas. "Saving the Humanities--Or, a Call for Triple Speak." College English 40.4 (1978): 390-396.

Provine, Robert R. "Laughter Punctuates Speech: Linguistic, Social and Gender Contexts of Laughter." Ethology 95 (1993): 291-298.

Pullum, Geoffrey K. The Great Eskimo Vocabulary Hoax: And Other Irreverent Essays on the Study of Language. Chicago, IL: Univ of Chicago Press, 1991.

Purdie, Susan. Comedy: The Mastery of Discourse. London, England: Harvestrer Wheatsheaf, 1993.

Raskin, Victor. "Linguistic Heuristics of Humor: A Script-Based Semantic Approach." International Journal of the Sociology of Language 65 (1987): 11-26.

Raskin, Victor. Semantic Mechanisms of Humor. NY: Reidel/Kluwer, 1985.

Raskin, Victor. "The Sense of Humor and the Truth." The Sense of Humor: Explorations of a Personality Characteristic. Ed. Willibald Ruch. Berlin, Germany: Mouton de Gruyter, 1998: 93-108.

Read, Allen Walker. Classic American Graffiti. Waukesha, WI: Maledicta Press, 1988.

Richardson, Ian M. "Language and Humor." British Journal of Language Teaching 27 (1989): 142-147.

Ritchie, Graeme. The Linguistic Analysis of Jokes. London, England: Routledge, 2003.

Robertson, David. "Re-Forming Frontier Values: The Dialect Poetry of James Whitcomb Riley." Thalia: Studies in Literary Humor 19.1-2 (2000): 14-27.

Rosa, Alfred, and Paul Eschholz. Language Awareness. 7th edition. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 1997.

Roskos, Kathleen A., and James A. Christie. Play and Literacy in Early Childhood: Research from Multiple Perspectives. Mahway, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2000.

Rosten, Leo. Leo Rosten's Carnival of Wit. New York, NY: Penguin, 1994.

Ruch, Willibald, Salvatore Attardo, and Victor Raskin. "Toward an Empirical Verification of the General Theory of Verbal Humor." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 6.2 (1993): 123-136.

Ryan, M. L. "From Verbal Play to Verbal Art: Grice's Maxims and the Strategies of Everyday Conversation." Journal of the Linguistic Association of the Southwest 4 (1981): 30-44.

Safire, William. On Language. New York, NY: Avon, 1980.

Safire, William. "On Language: Mind Games." New York Times Magazine 20 March, 1994: 18-20.

Sanches, Mary, and Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett. "Children's Traditional Speech Play and Child Language." Speech Play. Ed. Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1976, 65-110.

Saporta, Sol. Society, Language and the University: From Lenny Bruce to Noam Chomsky. New York, NY: Vantage Press, 1995.

Schegloff, Emanuel. "On Some Questions and Ambiguities in Conversation." Structures of Social Actions Eds. J. Maxwell Atkinson, and John Heritage. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1984. 28-52.

Schrader, Carol Taylor. "Symbolic Play: A Source of Meaningful Engagements with Writing and Reading." Play and Early Literacy Development. Ed. Christie, James F. New York: SUNY Press, 1991, 189-214.

Sherzer, Joel. "Play Languages: Implications for (Socio)linguistics." Ed. B. Kirshemblatt. Speech Play Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1976, 19-36.

Sherzer, Joel. Speech Play and Verbal Art. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2002.

Simon, John. Paradigms Lost: Reflections on Literacy and Its Decline. New YHork, NY: C. N. Potter/Crown, 1980.

Singer, Gail. Wisecracks. National Film Board of Canada. 1991.

Soukhanov, Anne H. Word Watch: The Stories behind the Words of Our Lives. New York, NY: Henry Holt, 1995.

Stock, Oliviero, and Carlo Strapparava. "HAHAcronym: Humorous Agents to Humorous Acronyms." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 16.3 (2003): 297-314.

Straehle, Carolyn A. "`Samuel?' `Yes, Dear?': Teasing and Conversational Rapport." Framing in Discourse. Ed. Deborah Tannen. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1993, 210-229.

Tatum, Tom. "Cruel and Unusual PUNishment (LOW Humor Is Better Than NO Humor)." English Journal 88.4 (1999): 62-65.

Terban, Marvin. Dictionary of Idioms, Phrases and Expressions. New York, NY: Scholastic, 1996.

Terban, M. Funny You Should Ask: How to Make Up Jokes and Riddles with Wordplay. New York, NY: Clarion, 1992.

Townsend, Dabney. "The Problem of Paraphrase." Metaphor and Symbolic Activity 3.1 (1988): 37-54.

Trelman, Rebecca. "The Structure of Spoken Syllables: Evidence from Novel Word Games." Cognition 15 (1983): 49-74.

Vaid, Jyotsna, M. R. Hull, R. Meredia, D. Gerkens, and F. Martinez. "Getting a Joke: The Time Course of Meaning Activation in Verbal Humor." Journal of Pragmatics 35.9 (2003): 1431-1449.

Vogel, Susan T. Humor: A Semiogenetic Approach. Bochum, Germany: Studieneur/Brockmeyher, 1989.

Von Hoff Johnson, Bonnie. Wordworks: Exploring Language Play. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing, 1999.

Vukelich, Carol. "Materials and Modeling: Promoting Literacy during Play." Play and Early Literacy Development. Ed. Christie, James F. New York: SUNY Press, 1991, 215-232.

Ward, Clyde H. "Sporting with Language." Motivations in Play, Games, and Sports. Eds. Ralph Slovennko, and James A. Knight. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1967, 104-116.

Weiner, E. J. "The Incongruity of Jokes, Riddles, and Humorous Situations." Towards a Social Science of Language: Papers in Honor of William Labov, Volume 2: Social Interaction and Discourse Structures Eds. G. R. Guy, Featin, Crawford, D. Schiffrin, and J. Baugh. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins, 1997, 139-151.

Weinrich, Harald. Linguistik der Luege. Heidelberg, Germany: Verlag Lambert Schneider, 1968.

Wentworth, Harold, and Stuart Berg Flexner, eds. Dictionary of American Slang. New York, NY: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1975.

West, Michael. Transcendental Wordplay: America's Romantic Punsters and the Search for the Language of Nature Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2000.

Whitesel, S. "Joke Center: Where Kids Go to Play on Words." Teacher (March, 1979): 44-49.

Willer, Bernhard , and Norbert Groeben. "Sprachliche Hinweise auf Ironische Kooperation." Zeitschrift fuer Germanistische Linguistik 8.3 (1980): 290-313.

Williams, Brackette. "Humor, Linguistic Ambiguity, and Disputing in a Guyanese Community." International Journal of the Sociology of Language 65 (1987): 79-96.

Williamson, Peter A., and Steven B. Silvern. "Thematic-Fantasy Play and Story Comprehension." Play and Early Literacy Development. Ed. Christie, James F. New York: SUNY Press, 1991, 69-90.

Wilson, Deirdre, and Dan Sperber. "On Verbal Irony." Lingua 81 (1992): 53-76.

Winner, Ellen, Gail Windmueller, Elizabeth Rosenblatt, Laurie Bosco, Edella Best, and Howard Gardner. "Making Sense of Literal and Nonliteral Falsehood." Metaphor and Symbolic Activity 2.1 (1987): 13-32.

Woolard, Kathryn A. "Codeswitching and Comedy in Catalonia." IPRA Papers in Pragmatics. 1.1 (1987): 106-122.

Wright, Edmond. "The Game of Reference." Connectionism and the Philosophy of Psychology. Ed. Matjaz Potrc. Acta Analytica 22 (1999): 179-196.

Wright, Edmond. "The Neglected Technique of the Witticism: A Philosophical Inquiry." Literature and Psychology Ed. Frederico Pereiro. Lisbon, Purtugal: Instituto Superior de Psicologia, 1993, 69-79.

Yamaguchi, Haruhiko. "How to Pull Strings with Words: Deceptive Violations in the Garden-Path Joke." Journal of Pragmatics 12 (1988): 323-337.

Yip, M. "Reduplication and C-V Skeleta in Chinese Secret Languages." Linguistic Inquiry 13 (1982): 637-661.

Yus, Francisco. "Humor and the Search for Relevance." Journal of Pragmatics 35.9 (2003): 1295-1331.

Zajdman, Anat. "Humorous Face-Threatening Acts: Humor as Strategy." Journal of Pragmatics 34 (1995), 325-339.

Zwicky, Arnold, Salus, Binnick, and Vanek, eds. Studies Out in Left Field: Defamatory Essays Presented to James D. McCawley. Amsterdam, Holland: John Benjamins, 1992.






[ website ]

Professor of English Linguistics at Arizona State University, Dr. Don L. F. Nilsen's areas of specialization within English Linguistics are Semantics, Pragmatics, and Discourse Theory. He is especially interested in sophisticated discourse, so he studies the nature of Double Entendre, Symbolism, Metaphor, Irony, Parody, Paradox, Wit, Symbolism, Humor, Comedy, and Tragi-comedy. Elected co-president for 2007 and 2008 of the American Names Society, Dr. Nilsen earned his Ph.D. at the University of Michigan.





content Copyright © 2007, Don L. F. Nilsen—All Rights Reserved

image (original), "Pope-ass and other monsters," De Monstrorum causis natura (1665)
image (edit), "Greenmen" © 2007, Darin C. Bradley—All Rights Reserved










back